Latest Updates

Goldman Sachs Appoints New Head Of Digital Assets, Doubles Team’s Headcount

  • The new leader of Goldman’s digital assets team will be financial market veteran Mathew McDermott.
  • The bank has expressed its intentions to further bet on blockchain technology by allowing him to double the size of his team.
Goldman Sachs Tower in Jersey City, New Jersey, photographed in 2014. Richard F. Ebert/Encircle Photos

  • The new leader of Goldman’s digital assets team will be financial market veteran Mathew McDermott.
  • The bank has expressed its intentions to further bet on blockchain technology by allowing him to double the size of his team.

German Authorities Seize $30M In Crypto From Online Streaming Site

  • One of the alleged operators of illegal streaming site movie2k.to voluntarily forfeited the Bitcoins.
  • The two main operators started buying large amounts of BTC in 2012, and later used the cryptocurrency to acquire various properties.

IDEX Raises $2.5 Million To Launch Version 2.0

  • The funding round was led by G1 Ventures and Borderless Capital.
  • The new 2.0 version of the platform will be launched in three phases, with each one introducing new features aiming to make IDEX the most sophisticated dapp on the market.

1 Million Holiday Homes Now Bookable Through Travala

  • With the addition of the new offering, Travala.com now has over 3 million accommodations around the world.
  • Available on the sites' "Homes" booking section, the new offering is in response to a growing demand for alternative accommodations.
U.S. President Donald Trump delivers the State of the Union address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on Capitol Hill on Feb. 4, 2020. Yuri Gripas/Abaca Press

Members Of Congress Propose New Tax Method For PoS Staking

  • According to experts, the current methods of taxation could create problems for both regulators and taxpayers.
  • The letter addresses some of the potential changes that could ease the processes connected to tax collection.

Unibright Partner With CONA Services To Establish “Coca-Cola Bottling Harbor”

  • The project will be launched in response to various technical problems related to the internal referencing of business objects.
  • The companies will work towards the realization of a new integrated, private, and distributed integration network.

600,000 Hotels Added To Travala’s Crypto Booking Platform

  • By partnering with Agoda, Travala.com now claims to have reached over 2.2 million property listings in total.
  • July has been a record month for the crypto-focused travel agency, with around $400,000 in revenue.

  • By partnering with Agoda, Travala.com now claims to have reached over 2.2 million property listings in total.
  • July has been a record month for the crypto-focused travel agency, with around $400,000 in revenue.

Twitter Hacker’s Bail Set At $725K

  • The 17 year old "mastermind" had 400 BTC confiscated by authorities last year during an investigation.
  • In order to carry out the hack, the ringleader reportedly had help from a 19 year old U.K. resident, and a 22 year old Florida resident.
Illustration from Freepik

  • The 17 year old "mastermind" had 400 BTC confiscated by authorities last year during an investigation.
  • In order to carry out the hack, the ringleader reportedly had help from a 19 year old U.K. resident, and a 22 year old Florida resident.

Ethereum Classic Experiences Reorganization Of 3,693 Blocks Thought To Be 51% Attack

  • The exact cause of the reorg is still in question, but Ethereum Classic developers assure that the incident is most likely unintentional.
  • Miners are advised to continue their work on the new chain as per the Proof-of-Work protocol.

Italian Banks Adopt R3’s Corda Blockchain To Improve Interbank Data Transfers

  • According to the Italian Banking Association, a total of 55 banks have been onboarded on the Corda-based blockchain platform.
  • As the Interbank Agreement was updated last year, more lenders are expected to integrate the standard by October.

DAI Holders Can Now Earn 2% Interest On Coinbase

  • Coinbase's new rewards program applies to customers residing in the U.S., U.K., the Netherlands, Spain, France and Australia.
  • The exchange already offers similar programs for the USD Coin (0.15% APY) and the Tezos tokens (5% APY).
Brian Armstrong, co-founder and CEO of Coinbase. Steve Jennings/Getty Images for TechCrunch

  • Coinbase's new rewards program applies to customers residing in the U.S., U.K., the Netherlands, Spain, France and Australia.
  • The exchange already offers similar programs for the USD Coin (0.15% APY) and the Tezos tokens (5% APY).

Editors' Picks

Electric Capital Raises $110 Million To Advance Blockchain Adoption

  • The VC fund has partnered with various institutional investors to line up resources for the next wave of crypto entrepreneurs.
  • The company will explore new opportunities in Layer 1 protocols, DeFi products and crypto-enabled marketplaces.
Electric Capital Managing Partner Avichal Garg speaks onstage during day 1 of TechCrunch Disrupt SF 2018 at Moscone Center on September 5, 2018 in San Francisco, California. Zimbio

  • The VC fund has partnered with various institutional investors to line up resources for the next wave of crypto entrepreneurs.
  • The company will explore new opportunities in Layer 1 protocols, DeFi products and crypto-enabled marketplaces.

Chinese Police Arrest 27 Suspects Allegedly Behind PlusToken’s $5.7 Billion Bitcoin Scam

  • This is the first time that Chinese police act to bring down a large-scale Ponzi scheme using BTC as a means of exchange.
  • Investigators have so far uncovered 109 alleged leaders and core members, operating from countries all over the world.

Steve Wozniak Sues YouTube Over Bitcoin Scams

  • Woz accuses YouTube of using his name and likeness to profit from bitcoin scams.
  • He filed a complaint, claiming that the company has violated his right of publicity and aided fraudulent activities on the platform.

Mastercard Expands Cryptocurrency Program, Wirex Can Now Issue Debit Cards

  • As part of its newly-expanded crypto card program, Mastercard has started encouraging crypto firms to consider partnerships.
  • Wirex is now the first crypto company to become a principal member of Mastercard.

BitGo Becomes First Major Wallet Platform To Support FATF Travel Rule

  • The FATF Travel Rule will be implemented into all VASPs in the blockchain sector.
  • The measure is meant to create a more secure crypto environment for custodial clients.

Bitcoin Gold Developers Fend Off 51% Attack

  • Another attack has been detected by BTG developers, which the organization claims to have successfully evaded it.
  • Instructions about a new node update, required of all BTG users, have been posted on the official website.

Binance Aids UK National Health Service With 27,000 Masks

  • Binance Charity made a donation worth more than $60,000 to the National Health Service in the U.K.
  • The organization openly expressed their support for the healthcare system and ensured future aid in the battle against COVID-19.

Opinion

Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin at the 2017 TechCrunch Disrupt SF conference. TechCrunch

The Crypto Market Is Preparing For Ethereum 2.0

  • Several delays and a couple years of flying under the radar have set up Ethereum's Beacon Chain as a catalyst to a possible crypto market renaissance.
  • Phase 0 launch is just around the corner and the market is preparing for the expected increase in demand for ETH.

Can Cryptocurrency & Blockchain Really Change The Global Economy?

  • The robustness of trustless DeFi could be the improvement current financial systems need.
  • With global change on the horizon, cryptocurrency could be at a turning point.

Is DeFi Sustainable?

  • Although speculation largely drives DeFi at the moment, there is much more potential there to be extracted.
  • Leading countries are already experimenting with concepts such as CBDC.

Opinion: Why The Brave Affiliate Link Antics Matter More Than You Think

  • Brave replaced some URLs typed in the browser with affiliate links due to a setting that used to be enabled by default.
  • The setting provides no indication that it has anything to do with affiliate links.

Follow This One Rule To Avoid Being Scammed

  • Scammers' revenue has grown from "just" $400 million in 2017 to more than $4 billion in 2019.
  • Following this one rule will help you identify the overwhelming majority of crypto schemes that many are still falling prey to.

It Would Have Been So Much Easier To Distribute The COVID-19 Stimulus Package With CBDC

  • Sending cheques by mail poses a multitude of problems, including lost cheques and wrong addresses.
  • If there was a central bank digital currency in place, the distribution process could have been so much simpler, as simple as executing a process in a simple UI.

Can Bitcoin be Used as a Central Bank Digital Currency?

  • As unlikely as it might be, we took a look at bitcoin being used as a central bank digital currency.
  • We listed the pros and cons, as well as the necessary evolution bitcoin would have to go through in order to be used as a CBDC.

In Other News

Illustration from Freepik

Fireblocks Launches New Deposit Acceleration Program On FTX

  • Zero-confirmation asset transfers will now be available to FTX users.
  • Traders using exchanges onboarded to the program will be able to execute immediate transactions to escape the volatility of crypto markets.

Elliptic To Provide Crypto Surveillance Tools To LocalBitcoins

  • The peer-to-peer exchange will now make use of Elliptic's Navigator risk analysis and Lens wallet screening tools.
  • With these new tools, the exchange is trying to get rid of its reputation as one of the top destinations for dirty Bitcoin.

Revolut Adds Support For Stellar Lumens

  • XLM is now available for trade on the platform along with six other major cryptocurrencies.
  • Starting July 27, Revolut users will have full legal ownership of their digital assets.

Chainalysis Launches New Data & Insights Portal For Cryptocurrency Markets

  • Market Intel's beta is now live and can be accessed for free, with metrics and insights across some of the major cryptocurrencies.
  • The product is also powered by Chainalysis’ proprietary data, an established and trusted crypto dataset used by many financial institutions.

Brave Brings VPN Services To iOS Browser

  • iOS Brave users can now make use of the new Firewall + VPN feature.
  • Unfortunately, users will be unable to pay for the service using Basic Attention Tokens, as Apple does not allow it yet.

Celsius Closes Equity Funding Round With Over $18.8 Million Raised

  • The blockchain-based financial services company completed their first equity round after previously raising $10 million from Tether.
  • The company has vowed to give back 80% of all earned crypto interest in the future back to the community.

Crypto Custodian Anchorage Adds Litecoin Support

  • Litecoin has become the 27th digital asset available for storage and trading on Anchorage's platform.
  • By listing the asset, Anchorage will meet the needs of a "sizable group" of institutional investors interested in Litecoin.

Bitcoin Suisse Completes Series A Funding, Raises $48 Million

  • The swiss crypto operator also added two new members to the Board of Directors.
  • Moreover, the company’s Chief Executive also announced an upcoming Security Token Offering.

Users Can Now Purchase Crypto Directly From Opera

  • Opera users in the U.K. can now purchase cryptocurrencies directly with their bank accounts, or through banking app Revolut.
  • The Norwegian browser company also revealed its crypto wallet usage numbers, claiming it has over 170,000 monthly active users.

Cryptocurrency

Illustration from Freepik

German Authorities Seize $30M In Crypto From Online Streaming Site

  • One of the alleged operators of illegal streaming site movie2k.to voluntarily forfeited the Bitcoins.
  • The two main operators started buying large amounts of BTC in 2012, and later used the cryptocurrency to acquire various properties.
Illustration from Freepik

IDEX Raises $2.5 Million To Launch Version 2.0

  • The funding round was led by G1 Ventures and Borderless Capital.
  • The new 2.0 version of the platform will be launched in three phases, with each one introducing new features aiming to make IDEX the most sophisticated dapp on the market.
U.S. President Donald Trump delivers the State of the Union address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on Capitol Hill on Feb. 4, 2020. Yuri Gripas/Abaca Press

Members Of Congress Propose New Tax Method For PoS Staking

  • According to experts, the current methods of taxation could create problems for both regulators and taxpayers.
  • The letter addresses some of the potential changes that could ease the processes connected to tax collection.
Illustration from Freepik

Twitter Hacker’s Bail Set At $725K

  • The 17 year old "mastermind" had 400 BTC confiscated by authorities last year during an investigation.
  • In order to carry out the hack, the ringleader reportedly had help from a 19 year old U.K. resident, and a 22 year old Florida resident.

Business

Goldman Sachs Tower in Jersey City, New Jersey, photographed in 2014. Richard F. Ebert/Encircle Photos

Goldman Sachs Appoints New Head Of Digital Assets, Doubles Team’s Headcount

  • The new leader of Goldman’s digital assets team will be financial market veteran Mathew McDermott.
  • The bank has expressed its intentions to further bet on blockchain technology by allowing him to double the size of his team.
Illustration from Freepik

IDEX Raises $2.5 Million To Launch Version 2.0

  • The funding round was led by G1 Ventures and Borderless Capital.
  • The new 2.0 version of the platform will be launched in three phases, with each one introducing new features aiming to make IDEX the most sophisticated dapp on the market.
Illustration from Freepik

1 Million Holiday Homes Now Bookable Through Travala

  • With the addition of the new offering, Travala.com now has over 3 million accommodations around the world.
  • Available on the sites' "Homes" booking section, the new offering is in response to a growing demand for alternative accommodations.
Photo by Belga

Unibright Partner With CONA Services To Establish “Coca-Cola Bottling Harbor”

  • The project will be launched in response to various technical problems related to the internal referencing of business objects.
  • The companies will work towards the realization of a new integrated, private, and distributed integration network.
Electric Capital Managing Partner Avichal Garg speaks onstage during day 1 of TechCrunch Disrupt SF 2018 at Moscone Center on September 5, 2018 in San Francisco, California. Zimbio

Electric Capital Raises $110 Million To Advance Blockchain Adoption

  • The VC fund has partnered with various institutional investors to line up resources for the next wave of crypto entrepreneurs.
  • The company will explore new opportunities in Layer 1 protocols, DeFi products and crypto-enabled marketplaces.

Politics

U.S. President Donald Trump delivers the State of the Union address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on Capitol Hill on Feb. 4, 2020. Yuri Gripas/Abaca Press

Members Of Congress Propose New Tax Method For PoS Staking

  • According to experts, the current methods of taxation could create problems for both regulators and taxpayers.
  • The letter addresses some of the potential changes that could ease the processes connected to tax collection.
Seoul, South Korea. Getty Images

20% Tax On Crypto Proposed In Korea

  • If approved, crypto trading profits above 2.5 million KRW (~$2,000) will be taxed at 20% starting October 2021.
  • Non-residents and foreign corporations that trade on South Korean exchanges will also be taxed.

New York State Attorney General Restarts Investigation Of Tether

  • Tether co-founder and presidential candidate Brock Pierce is not officially part of the investigations yet.
  • The attorney general claims that $850 million were already sent to a third-party payment processor.
New York state attorney general Letitia James.Spectrum News NY1

  • Tether co-founder and presidential candidate Brock Pierce is not officially part of the investigations yet.
  • The attorney general claims that $850 million were already sent to a third-party payment processor.

UK Regulator Lifts Restrictions On Wirecard

  • The firm's U.K. subsidiary was ordered to cease all of its regulated activities last Friday.
  • Wirecard now has a written consent to resume operations and is expecting all of its cards to be operational by 1 July.
Photo by Bloomberg

  • The firm's U.K. subsidiary was ordered to cease all of its regulated activities last Friday.
  • Wirecard now has a written consent to resume operations and is expecting all of its cards to be operational by 1 July.

Technology

Giovanni Del Curto/Shutterstock

Italian Banks Adopt R3’s Corda Blockchain To Improve Interbank Data Transfers

  • According to the Italian Banking Association, a total of 55 banks have been onboarded on the Corda-based blockchain platform.
  • As the Interbank Agreement was updated last year, more lenders are expected to integrate the standard by October.
Photo from Nikkei Asian Review

Bank Of Japan Forms New CBDC Research Team

  • The new team will take over from a previous research group, and will likely follow up on the bank's 2019 research into CBDCs.
  • Japan's central bank also stated that, although it has no plans to release a CBDC soon, that could change in the future.
Photo by Bangkok Post

Thailand Testing CBDC With Large Businesses

  • The Bank of Thailand has reportedly already used its CBDC for financial transactions with some businesses.
  • The country's central bank is also planing to roll out the CBDC for transactions with Hong Kong's central bank in September.

Read More

NEWS

Business

Goldman Sachs Tower in Jersey City, New Jersey, photographed in 2014. Richard F. Ebert/Encircle Photos

Goldman Sachs Appoints New Head Of Digital Assets, Doubles Team’s Headcount

  • The new leader of Goldman’s digital assets team will be financial market veteran Mathew McDermott.
  • The bank has expressed its intentions to further bet on blockchain technology by allowing him to double the size of his team.

IDEX Raises $2.5 Million To Launch Version 2.0

  • The funding round was led by G1 Ventures and Borderless Capital.
  • The new 2.0 version of the platform will be launched in three phases, with each one introducing new features aiming to make IDEX the most sophisticated dapp on the market.

1 Million Holiday Homes Now Bookable Through Travala

  • With the addition of the new offering, Travala.com now has over 3 million accommodations around the world.
  • Available on the sites' "Homes" booking section, the new offering is in response to a growing demand for alternative accommodations.

Exchanges

Illustration from Freepik

IDEX Raises $2.5 Million To Launch Version 2.0

  • The funding round was led by G1 Ventures and Borderless Capital.
  • The new 2.0 version of the platform will be launched in three phases, with each one introducing new features aiming to make IDEX the most sophisticated dapp on the market.

DAI Holders Can Now Earn 2% Interest On Coinbase

  • Coinbase's new rewards program applies to customers residing in the U.S., U.K., the Netherlands, Spain, France and Australia.
  • The exchange already offers similar programs for the USD Coin (0.15% APY) and the Tezos tokens (5% APY).

Fireblocks Launches New Deposit Acceleration Program On FTX

  • Zero-confirmation asset transfers will now be available to FTX users.
  • Traders using exchanges onboarded to the program will be able to execute immediate transactions to escape the volatility of crypto markets.

Politics

U.S. President Donald Trump delivers the State of the Union address to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on Capitol Hill on Feb. 4, 2020. Yuri Gripas/Abaca Press

Members Of Congress Propose New Tax Method For PoS Staking

  • According to experts, the current methods of taxation could create problems for both regulators and taxpayers.
  • The letter addresses some of the potential changes that could ease the processes connected to tax collection.

20% Tax On Crypto Proposed In Korea

  • If approved, crypto trading profits above 2.5 million KRW (~$2,000) will be taxed at 20% starting October 2021.
  • Non-residents and foreign corporations that trade on South Korean exchanges will also be taxed.

New York State Attorney General Restarts Investigation Of Tether

  • Tether co-founder and presidential candidate Brock Pierce is not officially part of the investigations yet.
  • The attorney general claims that $850 million were already sent to a third-party payment processor.

Legal

Illustration from Freepik

Twitter Hacker’s Bail Set At $725K

  • The 17 year old "mastermind" had 400 BTC confiscated by authorities last year during an investigation.
  • In order to carry out the hack, the ringleader reportedly had help from a 19 year old U.K. resident, and a 22 year old Florida resident.

Chinese Police Arrest 27 Suspects Allegedly Behind PlusToken’s $5.7 Billion Bitcoin Scam

  • This is the first time that Chinese police act to bring down a large-scale Ponzi scheme using BTC as a means of exchange.
  • Investigators have so far uncovered 109 alleged leaders and core members, operating from countries all over the world.

Steve Wozniak Sues YouTube Over Bitcoin Scams

  • Woz accuses YouTube of using his name and likeness to profit from bitcoin scams.
  • He filed a complaint, claiming that the company has violated his right of publicity and aided fraudulent activities on the platform.

Fraud

Illustration from Freepik

German Authorities Seize $30M In Crypto From Online Streaming Site

  • One of the alleged operators of illegal streaming site movie2k.to voluntarily forfeited the Bitcoins.
  • The two main operators started buying large amounts of BTC in 2012, and later used the cryptocurrency to acquire various properties.

Chinese Police Arrest 27 Suspects Allegedly Behind PlusToken’s $5.7 Billion Bitcoin Scam

  • This is the first time that Chinese police act to bring down a large-scale Ponzi scheme using BTC as a means of exchange.
  • Investigators have so far uncovered 109 alleged leaders and core members, operating from countries all over the world.

Twitter Claims Hackers Targeted Around 130 Accounts

  • From the 130 accounts the hackers were targeting, only a "small subset" sent tweets asking for Bitcoin.
  • Data from Chainalysis shows that around $126,000 have been transferred to the hacker's addresses so far.

Technology

Giovanni Del Curto/Shutterstock

Italian Banks Adopt R3’s Corda Blockchain To Improve Interbank Data Transfers

  • According to the Italian Banking Association, a total of 55 banks have been onboarded on the Corda-based blockchain platform.
  • As the Interbank Agreement was updated last year, more lenders are expected to integrate the standard by October.

Bank Of Japan Forms New CBDC Research Team

  • The new team will take over from a previous research group, and will likely follow up on the bank's 2019 research into CBDCs.
  • Japan's central bank also stated that, although it has no plans to release a CBDC soon, that could change in the future.

Thailand Testing CBDC With Large Businesses

  • The Bank of Thailand has reportedly already used its CBDC for financial transactions with some businesses.
  • The country's central bank is also planing to roll out the CBDC for transactions with Hong Kong's central bank in September.

Stablecoins

Brian Armstrong, co-founder and CEO of Coinbase. Steve Jennings/Getty Images for TechCrunch

DAI Holders Can Now Earn 2% Interest On Coinbase

  • Coinbase's new rewards program applies to customers residing in the U.S., U.K., the Netherlands, Spain, France and Australia.
  • The exchange already offers similar programs for the USD Coin (0.15% APY) and the Tezos tokens (5% APY).

Centre Freezes $100,000 In USDC Due To Law Enforcement Request

  • This move marks the first time the Centre Consortium used its power to blacklist an address.
  • Blacklisted addresses are no longer able to receive USDC, while the funds already inside are blocked, and cannot be transferred on-chain.

Circle Launches USDC On Algorand

  • Circle's USD Coin will benefit from Algorand's speed and security.
  • Algorand has become only the second organization to support USDC and the foundation's COO has expressed her excitement about the partnership.

Bitcoin

Illustration from Freepik

Chinese Police Arrest 27 Suspects Allegedly Behind PlusToken’s $5.7 Billion Bitcoin Scam

  • This is the first time that Chinese police act to bring down a large-scale Ponzi scheme using BTC as a means of exchange.
  • Investigators have so far uncovered 109 alleged leaders and core members, operating from countries all over the world.

Elliptic To Provide Crypto Surveillance Tools To LocalBitcoins

  • The peer-to-peer exchange will now make use of Elliptic's Navigator risk analysis and Lens wallet screening tools.
  • With these new tools, the exchange is trying to get rid of its reputation as one of the top destinations for dirty Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Suisse Completes Series A Funding, Raises $48 Million

  • The swiss crypto operator also added two new members to the Board of Directors.
  • Moreover, the company’s Chief Executive also announced an upcoming Security Token Offering.

Ethereum

Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin at the 2017 TechCrunch Disrupt SF conference. TechCrunch

The Crypto Market Is Preparing For Ethereum 2.0

  • Several delays and a couple years of flying under the radar have set up Ethereum's Beacon Chain as a catalyst to a possible crypto market renaissance.
  • Phase 0 launch is just around the corner and the market is preparing for the expected increase in demand for ETH.

Developers Release Info About The Final Ethereum 2.0 Pre-Launch Testnet

  • The developer team behind Ethereum 2.0 released detailed specification of the last pre-launch version of the network.
  • They also shared attacknets guidelines for stress testing the network, with bounties of up to $5,000.

Arca Launches New SEC-Registered Digital Security On Ethereum

  • The so-called ArCoin is a new ERC-1404 token, which represents the "Arca U.S. Treasury Fund".
  • The new fund has chosen to invest the majority of its assets in one of the investment world's least risky asset, Treasurys.

Ripple

Photo by Getty

Santander Adds New Regions To Payments App In Collaboration With Ripple

  • Built by Santander and Ripple, the One Pay FX international payments app is now available in 19 additional regions.
  • The bank also enhanced its Ripple-powered payments system to allow instant transactions.

New Lawsuit Alleges XRP Sale Violated Security Laws

  • The new allegations are coming from the same firm which unsuccessfully tried to sue crypto derivatives exchange FTX for $150 million in November 2019.
  • The company, Bitcoin Manipulation Abatement, is looking to "recover damages" and obtain "compensatory damages".

TPBank To Provide Transparent Transactions Between Vietnam & The World Using RippleNet

  • Via the new remittance services a transaction between two countries can be settled in minutes.
  • Using RippleNet, TPBank plans to open new cross-border transaction corridors and eventually grow their operations into other countries.

Bitcoin Cash

The Scheduled Bitcoin Cash Network Upgrade Is Complete

  • Bitcoin Cash's planned network upgrade went without hiccups or attacks on the network.
  • Three new features have been added, enhancing user experience and development capabilities alike.

Bitcoin ABC, Jiang Zhuoer Determined to Implement a Mining Tax on Bitcoin Cash

  • Major ecosystem participants, including former supporters of the proposal, have publicly criticised the actions of the most popular Bitcoin Cash node implementation and its representatives.
  • The latest iteration of the proposal features a 5% redistribution amount, a voting system and a whitelist of fund recipients.